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Multiple Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease: What's the Link?

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular (heart) disease. Learn more about the link between MS and heart issues. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition in which there is damage to nervous system tissue, resulting in symptoms ranging from tingling, numbness, and vision problems to debilitating muscle weakness. In addition to damaging the brain and

  • Posted on 26th May, 2022 20:35 PM
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Multiple Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease: What's the Link? Image

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition in which there is damage to nervous system tissue, resulting in symptoms ranging from tingling, numbness, and vision problems to debilitating muscle weakness. In addition to damaging the brain and spinal cord, MS may also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including problems in the heart and blood vessels.

This article discusses the link between MS and CVD, possible symptoms, and ways to reduce risk.

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The Link Between MS and Heart Issues

Several studies have suggested an association between MS and heart disease, and research is ongoing to understand their relationship.

Elevated triglyceride and LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, considered "bad") levels have been associated with worse MS symptoms and more brain imaging abnormalities. MS has also been associated with higher rates of stroke, heart attack, and death from CVD.

The reasons for this are still being investigated, but scientists have suggested links between inflammation and heart disease as well as genetic mutations associated with MS affecting the heart muscle and CVD risk. In addition, some shared risk factors for MS and heart disease, such as smoking and obesity, may contribute to these findings.

MS and CVD Statistics

A 2020 study looking at over 84,000 people for more than 10 years compared the health of those with and without an MS diagnosis. People with MS were approximately 50% more likely to die from heart disease, 28% more likely to have a heart attack, and 59% more likely to have a stroke.

Types of CVD Linked to MS

MS has been linked to the following types of CVD:

  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Peripheral vascular disease (slow, progressive blood circulation disorder)
  • Heart failure
  • Heart imaging abnormalities

Recognizing Symptoms

It is important to recognize symptoms of CVD, particularly for those who are at increased risk.

  • Heart attack symptoms can include chest discomfort, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and nausea.
  • Arrhythmias can cause light-headedness, fainting, palpitations, and weakness.
  • Heart failure may cause shortness of breath, leg swelling, weight gain, fatigue, and exercise intolerance.
  • Stroke can have variable symptoms, including sudden weakness on one side of the body or face, difficulty speaking, and vision changes.
  • Peripheral vascular disease typically presents with claudication, which is discomfort in the leg muscles with walking that is relieved with rest.

When to See a Healthcare Provider

Stroke and heart attacks require immediate attention. Call 911 and seek emergency medical care for any concerning symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heart rate, or sudden weakness of one side of the body.

Minimizing Risk

Preventing CVD is important for everyone, but those who are at higher risk of CVD should pay close attention to managing controllable risk factors.

Leading as healthy a lifestyle as possible is the first step. This includes:

  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Stopping smoking
  • Exercising (to the extent of your abilities)

MS can make exercising difficult, but regular exercise that gets the heart rate up, including activities like water aerobics and chair exercises, are beneficial.

In addition to a healthy lifestyle, it's important to ensure that blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol are controlled. Lifestyle can help with high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol, but medications are often needed.

Other Lifestyle Factors

CVD can also be influenced by under-recognized lifestyle factors, including poor sleep habits and mental health conditions. Make sure to get adequate sleep and prioritize mental health for the best possible outcome.

Summary

MS has been associated with higher rates of cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart attack, death from CVD, and peripheral vascular disease. The reason for this is not yet fully understood but could be related to a combination of factors, including inflammation, genetics, and associated risk factors.

It's important to recognize warning signs of CVD and seek medical attention as necessary. Preventing CVD includes a healthy lifestyle and managing other risk factors, like blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol.

A Word From Verywell

Much remains to be understood about MS, including its relationship with heart disease risk. Addressing risk factors that are common to both CVD and MS, like smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity, can be helpful in both reducing CV risk and improving MS symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Does MS increase risk of heart attack?

    Observational studies have found an association of MS and heart attacks. In fact, one 2020 study in England showed that people with a diagnosis of MS were 28% more likely to experience a heart attack than those without MS. While this association exists, it does not necessarily mean that MS is the cause of heart attacks.

  • What are the early symptoms of cardiovascular disease?

    Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors (like high blood pressure and high cholesterol) do not commonly cause symptoms initially. Early signs of blockages in the heart's coronary arteries include decreased exercise tolerance, fatigue, and chest discomfort with exertion.

  • Is someone with MS immunocompromised?

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, meaning that the body's immune system is overactive and inappropriately attacking its own tissues. Medications used to treat MS can cause a weakened immune system, so people taking medications for MS are often considered immunocompromised.

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