Paranoid personality disorder involves ongoing behavioral patterns that present as distrust, suspicion, hostility, and jealousy toward others. Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) involves persistent or ongoing patterns of thinking and behavior that include distrust, suspicion, hostility, and jealousy toward others. People with PPD often believe that others are malicious or trying to harm
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) involves persistent or ongoing patterns of thinking and behavior that include distrust, suspicion, hostility, and jealousy toward others. People with PPD often believe that others are malicious or trying to harm them. PPD can cause psychotic symptoms, including delusions and hallucinations.
Read on to learn more about PPD, its symptoms, treatment, and how to cope.
PPD has a set of criteria outlined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the American Psychiatric Association handbook for diagnosing mental health conditions. These diagnostic criteria include:
People with PPD are frequently suspicious of others' beliefs and behaviors, which may create problems in their daily functioning.
Some other symptoms of PPD include:
PPD first presents in childhood and adolescence. Some research indicates there may be genetic causes for PPD, including an association with family members who have schizophrenia or delusional disorder.
Other researchers indicate that childhood trauma consistently presents as a risk factor for PPD. Specifically, childhood emotional neglect, physical neglect, supervision neglect, and physical abuse are all risk factors for PPD.
In addition, people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to have PPD.
Brain trauma is often connected to PPD. Up to 26% of people with brain injuries meet the diagnostic criteria for PPD.
Treatments for PPD vary depending on symptoms and other conditions the person may have. Medication and therapy typically work best when used together to treat any personality disorder.
There is no medication that can treat a personality disorder, and there are no medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for PPD. However, medications are sometimes used to reduce symptoms or intensity.
Medications to treat PPD may include antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers.
The three types of therapy that researchers believe may be effective in treating PPD are:
Coping with PPD can be challenging. While medication and psychotherapy may be the most effective way to treat PPD, there are a few other ways to cope that may be helpful.
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) includes ongoing patterns of distrust, suspicion, hostility, and jealousy toward others. It involves a belief that people are behaving maliciously toward the person with PPD.
Childhood trauma is the most likely cause for PPD, though there may be a genetic predisposition. People with PPD can benefit from both therapy and medications.
PPD poses unique challenges. If you or a loved one is struggling with PPD, help is available. Contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline online or call 800-662-4357 for more information on how to find support and treatment options.What Is Paranoid Personality Disorder? View Story