Apraxia is a neurological disorder that affects the brain pathways involved in control, coordination, and planning of everyday movements and gestures. Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by an inability to perform everyday or highly trained movements, despite having normal muscle tone and strength. This is due to problems with cognition and motor planning and is often caused by a
Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by an inability to perform everyday or highly trained movements, despite having normal muscle tone and strength. This is due to problems with cognition and motor planning and is often caused by a brain disorder or damage.
This article will describe different types of apraxia, symptoms, how it is diagnosed, and treatment options.
There are several different forms of apraxia that cause difficulty with everyday tasks and movements. However, it is common for more than one type of apraxia to be present at the same time. Types of apraxia include:
Apraxia causes difficulty performing everyday tasks and activities of daily living despite no damage to muscle tone or strength. People with apraxia will often struggle with:
Verbal apraxia (also called apraxia of speech) uniquely affects the planning and sequencing of motor movements used to produce speech, which can cause difficulty pronouncing words, distorted speech, and speech errors.
Apraxia is caused by damage to specific areas of the brain involved in motor planning and movement coordination. These areas include:
Apraxia may also result from damage to the corpus callosum, the bundle of fibers that connect the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere of the brain.
Damage to these brain areas can occur from:
Apraxia results from damage to areas in the left side of the brain and occur in approximately one-third of patients who experience a stroke in the left hemisphere of the brain.
Apraxia can be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Your practitioner will test your muscle strength, range of motion, coordination, and cognition.
The Test of Upper Limb Apraxia (TULIA) can also be used to help determine whether apraxia is present. This test takes about 20 minutes to complete. During the test, a healthcare professional will demonstrate movements and then instruct you to reproduce the movements as precisely as possible. Some movements used in the TULIA include:
The physical exam is scored between 0 (no movement) and 5 (normal movement). Lower scores on the test indicate greater severity of apraxia symptoms.
To help determine the underlying cause of apraxia, other tests may be performed. These include:
Rehabilitation is the main treatment for apraxia, which can consist of:
Transcranial direct current stimulation to areas with the left side of the brain may be beneficial to improve motor planning and control to perform tasks and gestures. However, research in this field is ongoing.
Apraxia is a difficult condition to treat as it often results from brain damage from permanent injury or neurodegenerative conditions that worsen over time. Many people with apraxia require assistance to help them complete daily tasks such as bathing, dressing, and cooking. If apraxia results from a recent stroke or brain injury, early, intensive rehabilitation is crucial for maximizing successful outcomes to regain prior functions.
Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by an inability to perform everyday movements, despite having normal muscle tone and strength. This is due to problems with cognition and motor planning, which can interfere with daily living. Different forms of ataxia include ideomotor, ideational, limb-kinetic, buccofacial/orofacial, verbal, constructional, and oculomotor.
Apraxia results from damage to regions within the left side of the brain, especially from stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, or dementia. Rehabilitation including physical, occupational, and speech therapy can be used to help regain function.
Apraxia can be challenging to deal with due to a loss in movements required for everyday activities. Whether apraxia occurs suddenly or gradually over time, you may require ongoing assistance to help you complete your daily tasks. Early, intensive rehabilitation may be able to help restore lost function in certain instances.Apraxia: Overview and More View Story